Arnold J . Toynbee : Pro- Arab or Pro-Zionist ? Isaiah Friedman late 1 940 s , Arnold J . Toynbee acquired the reputation of being a passionate advocate and a firm opponent of the State of Israel . But during World War I aftermath , he was less sympathetic towards the Arabs . By 1917 , when the Arab uprising against the Turks had failed to materialize , he concluded that had no national consciousness . In his estimation , the Arab Revolt was of importance and , unlike T . E . Lawrence , he never glamorized it . Ironically , during the given period , Toynbee was a convinced Zionist and was admiration for the Jewish colonization of Palestine . 'For the Zionists' , he , 'Jewry is a nation , and [ in order ] to become like other nations it needs a . In the Jewish colonies in Palestine they see not merely a successful enterprise , but the visible symbol of a body politic [ ... ] their greatest achievement has been the revival of Hebrew as a living language ' . the political level he thought...  אל הספר
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