Intoduction The division of power between the state and cities dates back to ancient times , though it has evolved significantly over the centuries . In practice , however , many countries are still searching for the proper balance between their federal and municipal systems . Local governments ostensibly enjoy full independence : their managers are directly elected by the residents of the municipality , and are in charge of all municipal matters . Despite this , the ties with , and dependence on , the central government are very pronounced at all levels—from involvement of national parties in local elections to state intervention in municipal affairs . Dependence on the central government stems largely from the lack of financial independence in many of the municipalities . In most cases , their socioeconomic level is low , and they are incapable of providing their residents with a reasonable level of services based on their own sources of funding , forcing them to rely on the central ...  אל הספר
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