13 | INTRODUCTION their preparation program my undergraduate students recommended was : It is highly important to emphasize reading comprehension in education colleges, so later on teachers will have the awareness, acquaintance and comprehension in order to pass it on to their students . The college should implement more methodology courses such as Reading Processes , since it is not enough . In addition, an analysis of the programs offered by the English Departments of five of the leading education colleges also indicated the lack of courses on reading instruction . Some of the colleges offer a one - semester course, but most of these courses, such as "The psychology of reading", are Interviews with thetheoretical, or focus on the beginning of reading . 6 pedagogical instructors at two of these colleges indicated that they had very little time to devote to the issue of reading . The same is true of the other ( L1 ) departments at the colleges of education, even Elementary Education and Special Education, where the focus is on the learning disabled . It is also true of the secondary teaching certification programs at the universities . In the United States, on the other hand, the requirements for reading courses for secondary certification have increased over the years from only nine states, requiring at least one reading course prior to 1980, to twenty - five states in 1993 ( Barry, 2002 ) , to "some forty - seven states and the District of Columbia, [ which ] now require either specific course work or have established a competency in reading methods for all or some of their middle and secondary teachers" in 1996 ( Romine, McKenna, Since then, the NAE‒ National Academy of & Robinson, 1996 : 197 ) . 7 Education, has assigned a subcommittee to report and make suggestions for the preparation of reading teachers ( Snow, Griffin, & Burns, 2005 ) ; 8 For their syllabi see : The MOFET Institute library website : http : / / infocenter . 6 macam . ac . il / QueryForm . aspx For a more recent document see : https : / / education . uky . edu / acadserv / pdac / 7 certification - by - state / For the vast literature on the preparation of teachers to teach reading see, for 8 example : Anders, Hoffman, and Duffy ( 2000 ) ; Dillon, O'Brien, Sato, and Kelly Sailors, Minton, and Villarreal ( 2017 ) . ; ) 2011 (

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