11 | INTRODUCTION any EAP‒ English for Academic Purposes, reading courses in the first year of their academic studies ( Avi Allalouf personal communication, March 26, 2020 ) . Reading difficulties are often the result of a lack of adequate language proficiency ( Bernhardt, 2011 ) and a lack of reading strategies, particularly required for significant learningthe higher - order, metacognitive strategies 3 Segev Miller, 2004 a, 2014, 2016 ) and for successful socialization ( Brown ( Campione, 1996 ) . The definition of reading, or rather reading literacy , & provided by PISA ( OECD, 2006 : 46 ) further elaborates on its implications for the reader : Reading literacy is understanding, using and reflecting on written texts, in order to achieve one's goals, to develop one's knowledge and potential and to participate in society ( … ) . 4 It spells out the idea that literacy enables the fulfillment of individual aspirations ‒ from defined aspirations such as gaining an educational qualification or obtaining a job to those less immediate goals which enrich and extend one's personal life . Literacy also provides the reader with a set of linguistic tools that are increasingly important for meeting the demands of modern societies with their formal institutions, large bureaucracies and complex legal systems . 5 It is hardly surprising, then, that reading - to - learn , or learning from text ,has become a focus of intensive research in the last two decades ( for a review see : Flowers, 2013 ) , and that reading projects in the United States and in other countries, such as CAST, Reach Out and Read, Reading Worldwide, RIF, and Room to Read ( see : Appendix D ) , are being funded by governments and national and international organizations . Reading in English has become especially important with the emergence of English as a global language ( Crystal, 2012 ; Melitz, 2014 ) . In spite For a definition of these see : PART ONE, Chapter 2, 2 . 1 . 3 Underlining, here and henceforth in all the quotes in this book, not in the original 4 text . The most recent definition adds evaluating ( OECD, 2018 ) . 5

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