263 | PART FOUR : READING INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT It is generally accepted that comprehension instruction should include decoding, vocabulary, world knowledge, exposure to a range of authentic motivating texts and contexts for reading, extensive reading, and reading strategies ( e . g . , Duke, Pearson, Strachan, & Billman, 2011 ; Pressley, 2000 ; Pardo, 2004 ) . However, the focus of this book is on reading strategies . The TA protocols elicited by both school and college students I analyzed and discussed in PARTTHREE, as well as classroom observations and the scores of Israeli fourth and tenth graders on international exams ( see : INTRODUCTION ) , indicated the urgent need for the explicit instruction of reading strategies . Research on the explicit instruction of reading strategies both in L1 and in L2, of both single and multiple strategies, has One of the earliest single strategy indicated that it is indeed effective . 163 instruction studies was Pressley's ( 1976 ) seminal st...  אל הספר
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