Tel Aviv: Frivolity and Sharing the Burden


and intellectuals of Jewish Odessa - including Ahad Ha-Am , Bialik , Ravnitzky , Fichman , S . Ben-Zion , Ben-Ammi , Tchernichowsky , Steinman , Shlonsky , and others , who had fled from Russia - settled in Tel Aviv . For them , too , Tel Aviv symbolized the new Eretz Israel and its vision . They were followed by many Hebrew intellectuals from Warsaw and Berlin . Bialik reestablished the Dvir publishing house , following which almost all the major Hebrew publishing houses set themselves up in the city . Literary journals such as Hedim , Ketuvim , and Moznayim were published in the city , along with almost all the other periodicals , such as Gilyonot , Turim , Gazit , and Mahberot le-Sifrut . The Writers ’ Association was founded in the city and headed by Bialik . The “ Young Rebels , ” who opposed Bialik’s leadership , also resided in the city . The vast majority of the Hebrew daily newspapers were published in Tel Aviv , and with the many waves of immigration , almost all the newspapers in other languages . The national institutions were located in Jerusalem , the seat of the British administration , but most public institutions , including the Haganah headquarters , were housed in Tel Aviv . The Histadrut Labor Federation initially established its administration in Jerusalem , but shortly afterward moved to Tel Aviv , which became the real center for the Yishuv’s economic and social activity . The Industrialists ’ Association established its offices in Tel Aviv , as did the Agricultural Center of the hityashvut ha-ovedet , and the Farmers ’ Federation ( Hitahdut ha-Ikkarim ) , representing private farmers . The majority of the youth movements had their headquarters in Tel Aviv , as were those of the sports federations . The Hebrew University was built in Jerusalem , but a sort of barrier arose between it and Hebrew activity in Eretz Israel during the entire Mandate period . University extensions sprung up in Tel Aviv , to eventually become Tel Aviv University . Art and cultural institutions were concentrated in Tel Aviv , including the opera ( that was conducted by Mordecai Golinkin , from the St . Petersburg opera house ) , orchestras , and choirs . It was natural that the Palestine Orchestra ( later to become the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra ) made its home in Tel Aviv . Artists who had held their first exhibitions in Jerusalem also moved to Tel Aviv . The Ohel Theater , founded by Moshe Halevy as the Workers ’ Theater of Palestine , served as the focal point for a group of artists who wanted to represent the country’s new arts . When the Habimah Theater moved to Eretz Israel , it went to Tel Aviv , where the satiric Hamatate (“ the Broom” ) Theater , too , was active . Almost all the other theaters , later including the Cameri , operated in Tel Aviv , taking their productions from there to other parts of the country . Almost all the dance troupe , and the vast majority of musicians , nightclubs , and cabarets were housed in the city . Even the motion picture industry had its beginnings in Tel Aviv . Within a single decade , the city had become the world’s leading center for Hebrew culture . Max Nordau , Herzl’s colleague and one of the founders of the Zionist movement , was buried in the Tel Aviv cemetery , near the seashore , and after him , Ahad Ha-Am as well . The sculptor Avraham Melnikoff fashioned their tombstones . With an additional six sculptures , the cemetery came to hold the largest assemblage of his works . He would later also create the statue of lion over the tomb of Trumpeldor and his comrades in the Galilee . The members of the “ Odessa group , ” including Bialik , Ravnitzky , Tchernichowsky , S . Ben-Zion , and others , also asked to be interred in the old Tel Aviv cemetery . Eventually , that section of the cemetery became a pantheon of the pioneers of the new Hebrew literature . The spirit of optimism flowered for only a few years , until the crisis came . The immigrants ’ funds were insufficient to complete their houses , their livelihoods dwindled , immigration stopped , the flow of money ceased . Shops closed , one after the other . High unemployment came to Eretz Israel , and with it , despair . There had never been a recession in Eretz Israel as severe as that of 1926-1929 . Many went hungry , unemployed workers walked about in

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